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A Systematic Study of the Consistency of Two-Factor Authentication User Journeys on Top-Ranked Websites

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posted on 2023-11-29, 18:25 authored by Sanam Ghorbani Lyastani, Sven BugielSven Bugiel, Michael BackesMichael Backes
Heuristics for user experience state that users will transfer their expectations from one product to another. A lack of consistency between products can increase users' cognitive friction, leading to frustration and rejection. This paper presents the first systematic study of the external, functional consistency of two-factor authentication user journeys on top-ranked websites. We find that these websites implement only a minimal number of design aspects consistently (e.g., naming and location of settings) but exhibit mixed design patterns for setup and usage of a second factor. Moreover, we find that some of the more consistently realized aspects, such as descriptions of two-factor authentication, have been described in the literature as problematic and adverse to user experience. Our results advocate for more general UX guidelines for 2FA implementers and raise new research questions about the 2FA user journeys.

History

Preferred Citation

Lyastani Ghorbani, Sven Bugiel and Michael Backes. A Systematic Study of the Consistency of Two-Factor Authentication User Journeys on Top-Ranked Websites. In: Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS). 2023.

Primary Research Area

  • Empirical and Behavioral Security

Name of Conference

Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS)

Legacy Posted Date

2023-02-06

Open Access Type

  • Green

BibTeX

@inproceedings{cispa_all_3899, title = "A Systematic Study of the Consistency of Two-Factor Authentication User Journeys on Top-Ranked Websites", author = "Ghorbani Lyastani, Sanam and Bugiel, Sven and Backes, Michael", booktitle="{Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS)}", year="2023", }

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